Objective: Investigate how partial shading affects photovoltaic systems
In photovoltaic installations, multiple solar modules are usually connected in series in a long line. The modules themselves are made up of many solar cells connected in series. In practice, it is possible for such systems to be partially in shadow. Individual parts of the system are then exposed to less light and therefore generate little current, which then limits the current in the whole series circuit. This can be avoided by means of by-pass diodes. In this experiment, two modules each consisting of 18 solar cells are formed into a simple photovoltaic system. They can optionally be connected in series with or without by-pass diodes and are then illuminated with light from a halogen lamp.