Objective: Record the characteristics of a photovoltaic module (solar cell) as a function of the luminosity
A photovoltaic system converts light energy from sunlight to electrical energy. To do this, solar cells are used which are comprised of, for example, suitably doped silicon and consequently correspond to an up-scaled photodiode. Light absorbed by the solar cell releases charge carriers from their crystal bonds which result in a photoelectric current flowing opposite the forward direction of the p-n junction. It is the diode current of the solar cell that limits current output to an external load. When at the so-called no-load or idle voltage UOC, this current reaches a zero value because the photoelectric current and the diode current precisely offset each other and only becomes negative when a voltage is applied that is above the no-load voltage. When a positive current range is reached, the solar cell can be operated as a generator that outputs electrical power to an external load. In the experiment, the voltage-current characteristics of this generator are measured as a function of the illumination level and described with a set of simple parameters.